Red victory: A history of the Russian Civil War (1989). The White front had no depth or stability—it had become a series of patrols with occasional columns of slowly advancing troops without reserves. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. [34] The Bolsheviks attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful, and many leaders were arrested. Six days later this regime was replaced by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. Red Army attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathisers increased in ferocity throughout 1921. French forces landed in Odessa but, after having done almost no fighting, withdrew on 8 April 1919. On 14 November 1919 the Red Army captured Omsk. These advances were later checked with the Eastern Front counteroffensive, the Southern Front counteroffensive, and defeat of the Northwestern Army. [85] Boris Sennikov estimated the total losses among the population of Tambov region in 1920 to 1922 resulting from the war, executions, and imprisonment in concentration camps as approximately 240,000. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". Passport of A.V.Kolchak.jpg, Аrchive ransomed from the descendants of А.Kolchak. Following the abortive offensive at Chelyabinsk, the White armies withdrew beyond the Tobol. [79], After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest. From mid-1917 onwards, the Russian Army, the successor-organisation of the old Imperial Russian Army, started to disintegrate;[15] the Bolsheviks used the volunteer-based Red Guards as their main military force, augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka (the Bolshevik state security apparatus). The houses are crumbling. Reds started their counteroffensive against Kolchak's forces at the end of April. Viktor G. Bortnevski, "White Administration and White Terror (the Denikin Period).". [64] In fact, the Reds attacked Estonian army positions and fighting continued until a cease-fire went into effect on 3 January 1920. [42] Even before the failed summer offensive the Russian population was very skeptical about the continuation of the war. Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed. After the fall of Kazan, Vladimir Lenin called for the dispatch of Petrograd workers to the Kazan Front: "We must send down the maximum number of Petrograd workers: (1) a few dozen 'leaders' like Kayurov; (2) a few thousand militants 'from the ranks'". However, he did not gain the necessary support for the endeavour. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea and the Odessa area. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded and machines damaged. [17] The forced conscription drive had mixed results, successfully creating a larger army than the Whites, but with members indifferent towards Marxist–Leninist ideology. Photography 01.jpg, Аrchive ransomed from the descendants of А.Kolchak. in Ian C. D. Moffat. Following the disastrous Novorossiysk evacuation, Denikin stepped down and the military council elected Wrangel as the new Commander-in-Chief of the White Army. [95] Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. Telegram to A.V. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated the total number of men killed in action in the Civil War and Polish–Soviet War as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and the total number of military personnel dead from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2%, of pre-war levels. Britain intervened in support of the White forces to defeat the Bolsheviks and prevent the spread of communism across Europe. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk also resulted in direct Allied intervention in Russia and the arming of military forces opposed to the Bolshevik government. By the beginning of 1920 the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don, to Rostov. Vol. Germany landed its Caucasus Expedition troops in Poti on 8 June. By 19 October Yudenich's troops had reached the outskirts of the city. By February 1919 the British government had pulled its military forces out of Central Asia. Bullock, p. 7 "Peripheral regions of the former Russian Empire that had broken away to form new nations had to fight for independence: Finland, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan.". ".jpg, Генерал-майор Вишневский Евгений Кондратьевич.jpg, Дело Тульской губЧК по обвинению Анатолия Александровича и Александра Александровича Дельвигов.tif, Иван Константинович Хованский (1885—1918).jpg, Капітан Пінска-Валынскага добраахвотнага батальёну.jpg, Комдив Горно-Алтайской дивизии И.Я. [40] Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed that decision to his sponsorship by the Foreign Office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, offered to Lenin in hope that, with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I. The armies under Kolchak were eventually forced on a mass retreat east. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty, which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. The attack was well-executed, using night attacks and lightning cavalry maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red Army. Mawdsley, Evan. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, guerra civil rusa (es); Rússneska borgarastyrjöldin (is); Perang Saudara Rusia (ms); Russian Civil War (en-gb); Гражданска война в Русия (bg); Războiul Civil Rus (ro); روسی خانہ جنگی (ur); Оросой эрхэтэнэй дайн (bxr); Громадянська війна в Росії (uk); Gherra tzivile russa (sc); 러시아 내전 (ko); Ресей империясының азамат соғысы (kk); Rusia enlanda milito (eo); Руска граѓанска војна (mk); Ruski građanski rat (bs); Guerra Civil Rusa (an); রাশিয়ার গৃহযুদ্ধ (bn); guerre civile russe (fr); Раççейри граждан вăрçи (cv); Nội chiến Nga (vi); Krievijas pilsoņu karš (lv); Руски грађански рат (sr); Эрсече хинна бIорахой тIом (inh); Guerra Civil Russa (pt-br); Оросын иргэний дайн (mn); Den russiske borgarkrigen (nn); den russiske borgerkrigen (nb); Perang Sadulur Rusia (su); Vinne kodosõda (vro); Russian Civil War (en); الحرب الأهلية الروسية (ar); Brezel diabarzh Rusia (br); 俄國內戰 (yue); Россиядагы жарандык согуш жана чет өлкөлүк интервенция (ky); Ruski građanski rat (sh); Cogadh Cathartha na Rúise (ga); Errusiako Gerra Zibila (eu); สงครามกลางเมืองรัสเซีย (th); Guerra civil rusa (ast); Guerra Civil Russa (ca); Russischer Bürgerkrieg (de-ch); Rhyfel Cartref Rwsia (cy); რუსეთიშ ომენოღალე ლჷმა (xmf); Грамадзянская вайна ў Расіі (be); جنگ داخلی روسیه (fa); 俄国内战 (zh); Şerê navxweyî yê Rûsyayê (ku); რუსეთის სამოქალაქო ომი (ka); ロシア内戦 (ja); Guerra Civil Russe (ia); Ruski građanski rat (hr); الحرب الاهليه الروسيه (arz); Русия ватандашлар сугышы (tt); מלחמת האזרחים ברוסיה (he); Bellum Civile Russicum (la); ruská občanská válka (cs); रूसी गृहयुद्ध (hi); 俄国内战 (wuu); Venäjän sisällissota (fi); Ryska inbördeskriget (sv); Russian Civil War (en-ca); روسی خانہ جنگی (pnb); உருசிய உள்நாட்டுப் போர் (ta); guerra civile russa (it); Рәсәйҙә Граждандар һуғышы (ba); Rus İç Savaşı (tr); Perang Saudara Rusia (id); Грамадзянская вайна ў Расеі (be-tarask); Den Russiske Borgerkrig (da); Русия ватандашлар сугышы (tt-cyrl); Russ’sche Börgerkrieg (nds); Vene kodusõda (et); Guerra Cebil Russa (mwl); Guerra civili russa (scn); Guerra Civil Russa (pt); Guèrra Civila Russa (oc); Russischer Bürgerkrieg (de); Гражданская война в России (ru); Rusijos pilietinis karas (lt); ruska državljanska vojna (sl); Digmaang Sibil sa Rusya (tl); Rossiyada fuqarolar urushi (uz); Ռուսաստանի քաղաքացիական պատերազմ (hy); Gyera Sibil han Rusya (war); wojna domowa w Rosji (pl); Cogadh Sìobhalta na Ruise (gd); Russische Burgeroorlog (nl); orosz polgárháború (hu); Lō͘-se-a Lōe-chiàn (nan); Russyske boargerkriich (fy); Ruská občianska vojna (sk); Guerra Civil Rusa (gl); روسیه ایچ ساواشی (azb); Ρωσικός Εμφύλιος Πόλεμος (el); Rusiya vətəndaş müharibəsi (az) conflicto armado que tuvo lugar entre 1917 y 1923 en el territorio del disuelto Imperio ruso entre bolcheviques y el Ejército Blanco (es); guerre multi-parties dans l'ancien Empire russe de 1917 à 1923 (fr); Февраль һәм Октябрь инкыйлабыннан соң элекке Русия империясе территориясендә килеп чыккан сәяси, этник һәм социаль төркемнәр арасында ватандашлар сугышы (tt-cyrl); вооружённый конфликт между большевиками, белыми и сепаратистами (ru); Krieg von 1917 bis 1922 (de); Bruņots konflikts Krievijā no 1918. līdz 1922. gadam (lv); 武装冲突 (zh); vojna med več strankami v Ruskem cesarstvu med leti 1917 in 1922 (sl); Savaş (tr); Strijd om de macht na de tsaristische tijd (nl); wielostronny konflikt na terenie dawnego Imperium Rosyjskiego w latach 1917-1922 (pl); borgerkrig i Russland (1917–1922) mellom kommunistene og deres motstandere (den hvite armé) (nb); Perang multi-partéi di wewengkon urut Kakaisaran Rusia (su); interna milito en Rusio (1917–1922) (eo); भूतपूर्व रूसी साम्राज्य में बहुदलीय युद्ध, नवम्बर १९१७-अक्टूबर १९२२ (hi); Conflitto combattuto tra il 1917 e il 1923 (it); 1917년부터 1922년까지 일어난 舊 러시아 제국에서 러시아 혁명 직후 발생한 여러 당파 간의 전쟁 (ko); multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922 (en); جزء من الثورة الروسية وهي تمثل المرحلة الاخيرة للثورة التي انتهت بسقوط روسيا القيصرية (ar); Февраль һәм Октябрь инкыйлабыннан соң элекке Русия империясе территориясендә килеп чыккан сәяси, этник һәм социаль төркемнәр арасында ватандашлар сугышы (tt); சோவியத் யூனியன் தொடக்கம் (ta) Guerra civile in Russia (it); Russiske borgerkrig (da); 苏俄国内战争, 苏俄内战, 苏联国内战争 (zh); Venemaa kodusõda (et); Errusiako Gerrate Zibila, Errusiako gerra zibil (eu); Русиядә ватандашлар сугышы, Гражданнар сугышы, Русиядә гражданнар сугышы, Рәсәй ватандашлар сугышы, Рәсәйдә ватандашлар сугышы, Рәсәй гражданнар сугышы, Рәсәйдә гражданнар сугышы (tt-cyrl); Guerra Zebil Rusa, Guerra Cevil Rusa (an); Гражданская война 1917—22, Гражданская война 1917 года, Гражданская война 1917—1922, Гражданская война 1917-22, Гражданская война в России 1917-1922, Гражданская война 1917-1922, Гражданская война в СССР, Гражданская война 1918-20, Гражданская война, Междоусобная брань, Гражданская война́ в Росси́и (ru); Граждандар һуғышы СССР-ҙа (ba); Russische Bürger- und Interventionskriege (de); Revolução russa de 1918 (pt); Občianska vojna v Rusku (sk); Pilsoņu karš Krievijā (lv); Руска гражданска война, Гражданската война в Русия (bg); Грађански рат у Русији (sr); Rusya iç savaşı (tr); Digmaang Sibil na Ruso, Rusong Digmaang Sibil, Russian Civil War, Digmaang Sibil ng Rusya (tl); Venäjän kansalaissota (fi); Русиядә ватандашлар сугышы, Гражданнар сугышы, Русиядә гражданнар сугышы, Рәсәй ватандашлар сугышы, Рәсәйдә ватандашлар сугышы, Рәсәй гражданнар сугышы, Рәсәйдә гражданнар сугышы (tt); Perang Sipil Rusia (id); Russyske boargeroarloch (fy); Russiske borgerkrigen, Den russiske borgerkrig, Russiske Borgekrigen (nb); Bellum Domesticum Russicum (la); สงครามกลางเมืองในรัสเซีย (th); Građanski rat u Rusiji, Руски грађански рат (sh); מלחמת האזרחים הרוסית (he); 러시아 적백 내전, 적백 내전, 적백내전 (ko); Razboiul civil rus, Războiul Civil din Rusia (ro); Rusa interna milito, Rusa enlanda milito, Rusia interna milito (eo); občanská válka v Rusku (cs); Russ'sche Börgerorlog, Russ'sche Börgerkrieg (nds), multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922, Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Allied Intervention in the Civil war of Russia, Armoured trains in the Civil war of Russia, Civil war of Russia anti-communist propaganda, Civil war of Russia collections in Russia by museum, Monuments and memorials of Civil war of Russia, Partisans of the Soviet Union from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Civil War personalities on postal covers, Azerbaijani soldiers during Lenkoran operation.jpg, Béla Kun, Jacques Sadoul, Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Frunze, Sergey Gusev 1920.jpg, Chapaev with company at a funeral in Balakovo.jpg, Gavrilov Alexandr Barabinskaya Step No 33 1918 LL.jpg, Gavrilov Alexandr Ivanovich Moscow 1918.jpg, History of the Civil War in the USSR.