These two objectives require heavy expenditures for social welfare, defense spending at rates considered low by Western European standards, and close attention to foreign trade opportunities and world economic cooperation. [39] [40] [41] Pew Research Center's 2016 survey among its member states showed that while most countries viewed NATO positively, most NATO members preferred keeping their military spending the same. After a one-year waiting period, the country that wants to leave would be out. [2] [3] [4]. At the 2008 Bucharest summit, Greece vetoed the country's invitation to join; however, NATO member states agreed that the country would receive an invitation upon resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute. Relations between the United States and the European Union are the bilateral relations between the country and supranational organization. The treaty proposed equal limits for the two "groups of states-parties", the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, including the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The 2017 Brussels Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the 28th formal meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held in Brussels, Belgium, on 25 May 2017. Denmark's NATO membership does include the Faroe Islands and Greenland. To join the EU, a state needs to fulfil economic and political conditions called the Copenhagen criteria, which require a stable democratic government that respects the rule of law, and its corresponding freedoms and institutions. West Germany and Spain joined later. The North Atlantic Treaty, also referred to as the Washington Treaty, is the treaty that forms the legal basis of, and is implemented by, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The United Kingdom and France signed in 1947 signed the Treaty of Dunkirk, a defensive pact, which was expanded in 1948 with the Treaty of Brussels to add the three Benelux countries and committed them to collective defence against any armed attack for fifty years. Ukraine applied to begin a NATO Membership Action Plan (MAP) in 2008. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance, joined later by West Germany (in 1955) and Spain (in 1982). Russia–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the United States and the Russian Federation. Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it should be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary.[1]. Three other post-Soviet states—Azerbaijan, Belarus, and Georgia—signed the next year and the treaty took effect in 1994. 2004 – Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia. 1982 saw Spain come aboard and the Czech Republic, Hungary, … According to declassified U.S. State Department records, President Bill Clinton characterized the Partnership for Peace as a "track that will lead to NATO membership" and that "does not draw another line dividing Europe a few hundred miles to the east.". Each member designates an ambassador to NATO. The British worked with Washington to expand the alliance into NATO in 1949, adding the United States and Canada as well as Italy, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland. [38] Criticism of the organization by current US President Donald Trump caused various reactions from American and European political figures, ranging from ridicule to panic. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. Countries wishing to join have to meet certain requirements and complete a multi-step process involving political dialogue and military integration. Of the 30 member countries, two are located in North America (Canada and the United States), 28 are in Europe, one of which (Turkey) is in both Europe and Asia. The Western Union (WU), also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organisation (BTO), was the European military alliance established between France, the United Kingdom (UK) and the three Benelux countries in September 1948 in order to implement the Treaty of Brussels signed in March the same year. The relationship was generally warm under the Russian President Boris Yeltsin (1991–99) until the NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, and has since deteriorated significantly. NATO is an alliance of 29 member states. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization , also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 North American and European countries. In addition to the USA and Canada on the … Seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. The Adriatic States Albania and Croatia joined in the sixth enlargement in 2009, Montenegro in 2017 and North Macedonia in 2020. Three of NATO's members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The response to whether their country should militarily aid another NATO country if it were to get into a serious military conflict with Russia was also mixed. 1949 – Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg,  Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,  United Kingdom, United States. Dark blue marks countries that were already NATO members at the given time. United States President Donald Trump expressed interest in withdrawing from the organization during his 2016 presidential campaign, but he later stated that the United States would protect allies in the event that Article V is invoked. The formal process of doing this process is stated in article XIII of the Treaty. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, http://web.archive.org/web/20040320051445/http://www.nato.int/issues/faq/index.html, "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence", http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_2012_04/20120413_PR_CP_2012_047_rev1.pdf, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Member_states_of_NATO?oldid=4517072. Over the next thirteen months, all of NATO's 29 member states ratified the protocol. The United States has a larger defence expenditure than all other members combined. In the 7 December 2011 statement of the North Atlantic Council Georgia was designated as an "aspirant country". In 1992, six post-Soviet states belonging to the Commonwealth of Independent States—Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—signed the Collective Security Treaty. Plans for NATO membership were shelved by Ukraine following the 2010 presidential election in which Viktor Yanukovych, who preferred to keep the country non-aligned, was elected President. In 2014, relations greatly deteriorated further due to the crisis in Ukraine, Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, differences regarding Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, and from the end of 2016 over Russia's alleged interference in the 2016 U.S. elections and the 2020 elections. The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. Three of NATO's members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The two parties share a good relationship which is strengthened by cooperation on trade, military defense and shared values. The group expanded in 1952 to include Greece and Turkey and then, again, in 1955 to formally introduce West Germany into the fold. The US and EU have been interacting for more than sixty years. Georgia has moved quickly following the Rose Revolution in 2003 to seek closer ties and eventual membership with NATO. Under this treaty the signatories, referred to as the five powers, agreed to collaborate in the defence field as well as in the political, economic and cultural fields. Georgia's powerful northern neighbor, Russia, has opposed the closer ties, including those expressed at the 2008 Bucharest summit where NATO members promised that Georgia would eventually join the organization. Relations between Ukraine and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) started in 1994. The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states, and from 18 February 1952 to 6 May 1955, it added three more member nations, and a fourth on 30 May 1982. The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954, but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states, and from 18 February 1952 to 6 May 1955, it added three more member nations, and a fourth on 30 May 1982. Georgia and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) relations officially began in 1994 when Georgia joined the NATO-run Partnership for Peace. It was first discussed by the Bulgarian Society Novae, after being proposed as an American initiative at the meeting of NATO defense ministers in Travemünde, Germany, on October 20–21, 1993, and formally launched on January 10–11, 1994 at the NATO summit in Brussels, Belgium. US–EU relations officially started in 1953 when US ambassadors visited the European Coal and Steel Community. Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Georgia, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyz Republic, Malta, The Republic of Moldova, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is the European Union's (EU) course of action in the fields of defence and crisis management, and a main component of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The security doctrine still states that "Sweden pursues a policy of non-participation in military alliances," but permits cooperation in response to threats against peace and security. The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. In 2002, Sweden revised its security doctrine. All members have militaries, except for Iceland, which does not have a typical army (but it does have a coast guard and a small unit of civilian specialists for NATO operations). NATO Member States The member states of NATO are: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.